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martes, 22 de abril de 2014

NASA : Satellite View of the Americas on Earth Day


Satellite View of the Americas on Earth Day
Today, April 22, 2014 is Earth Day, and what better way to celebrate than taking a look at our home planet from space.
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured this stunning view of the Americas on Earth Day, April 22, 2014 at 11:45 UTC/7:45 a.m. EDT. The data from GOES-East was made into an image by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
In North America, clouds associated with a cold front stretch from Montreal, Canada, south through the Tennessee Valley, and southwest to southern Texas bringing rain east of the front today. A low pressure area in the Pacific Northwest is expected to bring rainfall in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, stretching into the upper Midwest, according to NOAA's National Weather Service. That low is also expected to bring precipitation north into the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Another Pacific low is moving over southern Nevada and the National Weather Service expects rain from that system to fall in central California, Nevada, and northern Utah.
Near the equator, GOES imagery shows a line of pop up thunderstorms. Those thunderstorms are associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ encircles the Earth near the equator.
In South America, convective (rapidly rising air that condenses and forms clouds) thunderstorms pepper Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and northwestern and southeastern Brazil.
GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. Geostationary describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth. This allows GOES to hover continuously over one position on Earth's surface, appearing stationary. As a result, GOES provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric "triggers" for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms and hurricanes.
For more information about GOES satellites,

NASA
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui

DÍA DE LA TIERRA: EL MAS BELLO DE LOS PLANETAS DEL SISTEMA SOLAR, CELEBRA SU DÍA EL 22 DE ABRIL....

Hola Amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG., a iniciativa del Senador Norteamericano Gaylord Anton Nelson, hoy 22 de abril celebramos el Día de La Tierra, iniciativa que justamente la inició desde el 22 de abril de 1,970, con el fin de crear conciencia sobre los graves problemas que estamos ocasionando  a nuestro y bello planeta, que viniendo desde El Sol, es el tercero, justo ubicado en al zona habitable del Sistema Solar.
La intención de Gaylord Anton Nelson, era crear conciencia para resolver los problemas básicos que aquejan a La Tierra como : La superpoblación humana, La Contaminación ambiental, y el uso adecuado de la Biodiversidad.
Naturalmente solo somos un grano de arena en la gigantesca suma de 400,000 mil millones de estrellas dentro de la Galaxia Vía Láctea; la estrella que es nuestro El Sol, se ubica en la Zona de Habitabilidad Galáctica entre las Constelaciones del Cisne y Lira.

Vista de la Tierra como visto por Apolo 17, equipo que viaja hacia la Luna. Esta fotografía de costa de translunar amplía del área del Mar Mediterráneo a la Antártida Sur un polo de hielo. Esto es la primera vez que la trayectoria de Apolo hizo posible de fotografiar Polo Sur  de hielo. Note la cubierta de nube pesada en el Hemisferio austral. Casi la línea de la costa entera de África es claramente visible. La Península árabe puede ser vista en el borde Noreste de África. La isla grande  es República Malagache - Madagascar, de la costa de África . El continente asiático está sobre el horizonte hacia el Noreste.NASA

Image of the Earth from Apollo 17

View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the Moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica South polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the South polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Peninsula can be seen at the Northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is the Malagasy Republic. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the Northeast.

La Tierra como todo planeta necesita energía, justamente estamos a 150 millones de kilómetros de El Sol, justo al zona exacta que nos permite sustentar la vida: ni muy cerca a El Sol que nos quemaremos, ni muy lejos de El Sol que nos congelaríamos, y solamente un satélite se traslada alrededor de La Tierra y es La Luna que nos separa en aproximadamente 384,000 kilómetros.
La Tierra, siendo un planeta maravilloso está sometida a dos movimientos:
1.- Movimiento de Translación: Que lo hace alrededor de El Sol en 365 días ( un año)
2.- Movimiento de Rotación: Que lo hace sobre su propio eje en 30 días (un mes).
Somos un planeta rocoso y cubierto en los 3/4 partes de agua, que es justamente lo que nos permite sustentar la vida.
 
¿Qué estamos haciendo para conservar la bella de La Tierra)?

Sinceramente casi  nada, por que cada día, gracias a la voracidad del hombre en la explotación sin piedad de los recursos naturales arroja miles de toneladas a la atmósfera de: Dióxido de carbono-C02, Monóxido de Carbono-CO, clorofluorocarburos (CFC o ClFC),Dióxido de azufre-SO2, El Metano- CH4,, todos estos gases ocasionan el Efecto Invernadero que al estar bloqueada nuestra atmósfera por los contaminantes retiene la energía solar, regresando ese calor que afecta directamente a los polos : Ártico y Antártico que origina el Calentamiento Global  con el deshielo del único depósito de agua dulce que dispone La Tierra.
 
MARAVILLAS  NATURALES DE LA TIERRA:


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Cataratas Victoria en África
Wikipedia.


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Cara sur del Everest, vista desde Kala Patthar, en Nepal.
Wikipedia

MARAVILLAS  ANTIGUAS CONSTRUIDAS POR EL HOMBRE:

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Las tres grandes pirámides: pirámide de Micerinos, pirámide de Kefrén y pirámide de Keops, de más cerca a más lejos. En primer término están las denominadas pirámides de las reinas.
WIKIPEDIA.


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Vista de sur a norte. A la izquierda se ve el sector Hanan de la ciudad (con la estructura piramidal de la colina del Intihuatana) y a la derecha el sector Oriente, separadas por la plaza principal. Al fondo el Cerro Huayna Picchu. La imagen está tomada desde lo alto del sector agrícola, al sur del complejo.
WIKIPEDIA.

MARAVILLAS MODERNAS CONSTRUIDAS POR EL HOMBRE:


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Nombre inicialBurj Dubai
TipoRascacielos
Coste1.5 mil millones USD (1.14 mil millones €)
Dirección1 Emaar Boulevard
LocalizaciónDubái, Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Emiratos Árabes Unidos
PropietarioBandera de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos Emaar
ArrendatarioBandera de los Estados Unidos Turner Construction
Uso(s)Oficinas / Residencial / Hotel
Coordenadas25°11′49.70″N 55°16′26.80″E / 25.1971389, 55.2741111


Coordenadas: 25°11′49.70″N 55°16′26.80″E / 25.1971389, 55.2741111 (mapa)
Construcción
Inicio21 de septiembre de 2004[1]
Término4 de enero de 2010[2]
Dimensiones
Altura828 m [3]
Pisos163
Superficie309.473 m²
Altura máxima829,8 m
Altura de la azotea587 m
Altura de la última planta584,5 m
Número de plantas163
Número de ascensores58
Equipo
Arquitecto(s)Bandera de los Estados Unidos Skidmore Owings & Merrill
Bandera del Reino Unido Hyder Consulting
Ingeniero estructuralBandera de los Estados Unidos Skidmore Owings & Merrill
Ingeniero de serviciosBandera de los Estados Unidos Skidmore Owings & Merrill
ContratistaBandera de Corea del Sur Samsung C&T Corporation
Bandera de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos Arabtec
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Besix
PromotorBandera de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos Emaar
OtrosBandera de los Estados Unidos Otis Elevator Company
Bandera de Canadá RWDI
Bandera de los Estados Unidos Dow Corning Corporation
Bandera de los Estados Unidos AECOM
Bandera de las Filipinas ALT Cladding
Taipei 101Edificios más altos del mundo
2010 – Presente
Wikipedia.


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Brasilia (en portugués Brasília) es la capital federal del Brasil y la sede del Gobierno del Distrito Federal, localizada en la parte central del país. Tiene una población de 2.562.963 habitantes según las estimaciones del censo de 2010,[1] lo que la convierte en la cuarta ciudad del país por población. Es sede del gobierno federal, conformado por el presidente —quien trabaja en el Palacio de Planalto—, el Supremo Tribunal Federal de Brasil y el Congreso Nacional de Brasil.
WIKIPEDIA.

Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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lunes, 21 de abril de 2014

nsf.gov - NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION - Earth Week: Bark beetles change Rocky Mountain stream flows, affect water quality


 
What happens when millions of dead trees, killed by beetles, no longer need water?
Gray trees killed by bark beetles between green trees in Rocky Mountain National Park.
Gray trees killed by bark beetles pepper the landscape in Rocky Mountain National Park.
Credit and Larger Version
April 21, 2014
The following is part fourteen in a series on the National Science Foundation's Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability (SEES) investment. Parts one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve and thirteen in this series are available on the NSF website.
On Earth Week--and in fact, every week now--trees in mountains across the western United States are dying, thanks to an infestation of bark beetles that reproduce in the trees' inner bark.
Some species of the beetles, such as the mountain pine beetle, attack and kill live trees. Others live in dead, weakened or dying hosts.
In Colorado alone, the mountain pine beetle has caused the deaths of more than 3.4 million acres of pine trees.
What effect do all these dead trees have on stream flow and water quality? Plenty, according to new research findings reported this week.
 
Dead trees don't drink water
"The unprecedented tree deaths caused by these beetles provided a new approach to estimating the interaction of trees with the water cycle in mountain headwaters like those of the Colorado and Platte Rivers," says hydrologist Reed Maxwell of the Colorado School of Mines.
Maxwell and colleagues have published results of their study of beetle effects on stream flows in this week's issue of the journal Nature Climate Change.
As the trees die, they stop taking up water from the soil, known as transpiration. Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from leaves, stems and flowers.
The "unused" water then becomes part of the local groundwater and leads to increased water flows in nearby streams.
The research is funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC) Program. WSC is part of NSF's Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability initiative.
"Large-scale tree death due to pine beetles has many negative effects," says Tom Torgersen of NSF's Directorate for Geosciences and lead WSC program director.
"This loss of trees increases groundwater flow and water availability, seemingly a positive," Torgersen says.
"The total effect, however, of the extensive tree death and increased water flow has to be evaluated for how much of an increase, when does such an increase occur, and what's the water quality of the resulting flow?"
The answers aren't always good ones.
 
Green means go, red means stop, even for trees
Under normal circumstances, green trees use shallow groundwater in late summer for transpiration.
Red- and gray-phase trees--those affected by beetle infestations--stop transpiring, leading to higher water tables and greater water availability for groundwater flow to streams.
The new results show that the fraction of late-summer groundwater flows from affected watersheds is about 30 percent higher after beetles have infested an area, compared with watersheds with less severe beetle attacks.
"Water budget analysis confirms that transpiration loss resulting from beetle kill can account for the increase in groundwater contributions to streams," write Maxwell and scientists Lindsay Bearup and John McCray of the Colorado School of Mines, and David Clow of the U.S. Geological Survey, in their paper.
 
Dead trees create changes in water quality
"Using 'fingerprints' of different water sources, defined by the sources' water chemistry, we found that a higher fraction of late-summer streamflow in affected watersheds comes from groundwater rather than surface flows," says Bearup.
"Increases in stream flow and groundwater levels are very hard to detect because of fluctuations from changes in climate and in topography. Our approach using water chemistry allows us to 'dissect' the water in streams and better understand its source."
With millions of dead trees, adds Maxwell, "we asked: What's the potential effect if the trees stop using water? Our findings not only identify this change, but quantify how much water trees use."
An important implication of the research, Bearup says, is that the change can alter water quality.
The new results, she says, help explain earlier work by Colorado School of Mines scientists. "That research found an unexpected spike in carcinogenic disinfection by-products in late summer in water treatment plants."
Where were those water treatment plants located? In bark beetle-infested watersheds.
-- Cheryl Dybas, NSF (703) 292-7734 cdybas@nsf.gov
Investigators Reed Maxwell
Eric Dickenson
Jonathan Sharp
Alexis Navarre-Sitchler
Related Institutions/Organizations Colorado School of Mines
Total Grants $2,307,644
Related WebsitesNSF Awards Grants for Study of Water Sustainability and Climate:
 http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=117819
How Is Earth's Water System Linked With Land Use, Climate Change and Ecosystems?:
 http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=125434
NSF Discoveries in Sustainability:
 http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2012/disco12001/disco12001.pdf
Ghosts of Forests Past: Bark Beetles Kill Lodgepole Pines, Affecting Entire Watersheds:
 http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=128398
green, red and gray trees
Trees go from green and healthy, to red and dying, and finally to gray and dead, from bark beetles.
Credit and Larger Version
Researcher collecting precipitation samples
Precipitation samples were collected to determine their unique chemical fingerprints.
Credit and Larger Version
Man walking through snow near a forest with dead and live trees.
Snow processes change as beetles kill lodgepole pines and trees no longer shade snowbanks.
Credit and Larger Version
Researcher with water sample taken from the Big Thompson River
Water samples were taken from the Big Thompson River in Rocky Mountain National Park.
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Lodgepole pines are regrowing among trees killed by beetles
Lodgepole pines are beginning to regrow in areas where trees had once been beetle-killed.
Credit and Larger Version
 
 
 the National Science Foundation(NSF)
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui