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domingo, 26 de abril de 2015

NASA : El Casco de Thor, Esculpido Por Potentes Rayos X

Hola amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG,  Esta colorida imagen nos muestra una gigantesca nube de polvo y gas conocida como NGC 2359. Esta estructura cósmica también recibe el sobrenombre de la nebulosa del Casco de Thor, ya que los brazos arqueados que parten de su bulbo central recuerdan al yelmo alado de este dios de la mitología nórdica.
Sus colores neón crean una escena espectacular, pero también ofrecen importantes pistas sobre la composición de la nebulosa. Las manchas de color azul brillante representan las emisiones en la banda de los rayos X, detectadas por las cámaras EPIC del observatorio espacial XMM-Newton de la ESA. Los tonos verdes y rojo pálido son el brillo de los iones de oxígeno e hidrógeno, vistos desde el telescopio SSRO Sur del Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo. 
La intensa emisión de rayos X detectada por XMM-Newton procede de una estrella de Wolf-Rayet situada en el centro de la nebulosa, y conocida como HD 56925. Esta estrella es vieja y masiva, y está emitiendo materia a un ritmo espectacular: este astro pierde una masa equivalente a la de nuestro Sol cada 100.000 años, a través de un viento que alcanza velocidades de más de 1.500 km/s.
El casco de Thor, esculpido por potentes rayos X
 El casco de Thor, esculpido por potentes rayos X. Image Credit: ESA
 
El aspecto caótico de NGC 2359 es el resultado de la actividad de su violento inquilino. La nebulosa está formada por un bulbo central rodeado por una maraña de filamentos gaseosos, espesos canales de polvo oscuro y brillantes llamaradas provocadas por las colisiones de la materia arrastrada por el viento estelar con el gas de su entorno, que generan fuertes ondas de choque que barren toda la región. 
Las regiones azules se corresponden con las zonas más calientes de la nebulosa, como su bulbo central y un fuerte escape a su izquierda. Se piensa que la temperatura del gas de NGC 2359 oscila entre los millones y las decenas de millones de grados centígrados. 
Esta imagen combina los datos recogidos en la banda de los rayos X por XMM-Newton en 2013 (azul) con las observaciones ópticas realizadas desde el Cerro Tololo en Chile (verde y rojo). El norte se encuentra a la izquierda y el oeste en la parte superior. Esta composición fue publicada por primera vez en la galería de imágenes de XMM-Newton.
NASA
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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NASA : NASA’s NExSS Coalition to Lead Search for Life on Distant Worlds .- Coalición NExSS de la NASA para liderar búsqueda de vida en Mundos Distantes............

Hola amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG., hemos recibido la información d ela Agencia Espacial NASA, sobre la coalición que ha establecido con el The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, or “NExSS”, que espera poder entender mejor los distintos componentes de un exoplaneta, así como la forma de las estrellas y los planetas y  planetas vecinos que interactúan para mantener la vida.
NASA, nos dice : " "Este esfuerzo interdisciplinario conecta equipos de investigación y proporciona un enfoque sintetizado en la búsqueda de planetas con el mayor potencial de signos de vida", dice Jim Green, director de Ciencias Planetarias de la NASA. "La búsqueda de exoplanetas es no sólo una prioridad para los astrónomos, es de gran interés para los científicos planetarios y el clima también."

Artist concept of planet surface with galaxy in sky at left and children running in field
The search for life beyond our solar system requires unprecedented cooperation across scientific disciplines. NASA's NExSS collaboration includes those who study Earth as a life-bearing planet (lower right), those researching the diversity of solar system planets (left), and those on the new frontier, discovering worlds orbiting other stars in the galaxy (upper right).
Credits: NASA
NASA is bringing together experts spanning a variety of scientific fields for an unprecedented initiative dedicated to the search for life on planets outside our solar system.  
The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, or “NExSS”, hopes to better understand the various components of an exoplanet, as well as how the planet stars and neighbor planets interact to support life.
“This interdisciplinary endeavor connects top research teams and provides a synthesized approach in the search for planets with the greatest potential for signs of life,” says Jim Green, NASA’s Director of Planetary Science. “The hunt for exoplanets is not only a priority for astronomers, it’s of keen interest to planetary and climate scientists as well.”
The study of exoplanets – planets around other stars – is a relatively new field. The discovery of the first exoplanet around a star like our sun was made in 1995. Since the launch of NASA’s Kepler space telescope six years ago, more than 1,000 exoplanets have been found, with thousands of additional candidates waiting to be confirmed. Scientists are developing ways to confirm the habitability of these worlds and search for biosignatures, or signs of life.
The key to this effort is understanding how biology interacts with the atmosphere, geology, oceans, and interior of a planet, and how these interactions are affected by the host star. This “system science” approach will help scientists better understand how to look for life on exoplanets.
NExSS will tap into the collective expertise from each of the science communities supported by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate:
  • Earth scientists develop a systems science approach by studying our home planet.
  • Planetary scientists apply systems science to a wide variety of worlds within our solar system.
  • Heliophysicists add another layer to this systems science approach, looking in detail at how the Sun interacts with orbiting planets.
  • Astrophysicists provide data on the exoplanets and host stars for the application of this systems science framework.
NExSS will bring together these prominent research communities in an unprecedented collaboration, to share their perspectives, research results, and approaches in the pursuit of one of humanity’s deepest questions: Are we alone?
The team will help classify the diversity of worlds being discovered, understand the potential habitability of these worlds, and develop tools and technologies needed in the search for life beyond Earth.
Dr. Paul Hertz, Director of the Astrophysics Division at NASA notes, “NExSS scientists will not only apply a systems science approach to existing exoplanet data, their work will provide a foundation for interpreting observations of exoplanets from future exoplanet missions such as TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.” The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is working toward a 2017 launch, with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) scheduled for launch in 2018. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope is currently being studied by NASA for a launch in the 2020’s.
NExSS will be led by Natalie Batalha of NASA’s Ames Research Center, Dawn Gelino with NExScI, the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, and Anthony del Genio of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. The NExSS project will also include team members from 10 different universities and two research institutes. These teams were selected from proposals submitted across NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.
The Berkeley/Stanford University team is led by James Graham. This "Exoplanets Unveiled" group will focus on this question: “What are the properties of exoplanetary systems, particularly as they relate to their formation, evolution, and potential to harbor life?”
Daniel Apai leads the “Earths in Other Solar Systems” team from the University of Arizona. The EOS team will combine astronomical observations of exoplanets and forming planetary systems with powerful computer simulations and cutting-edge microscopic studies of meteorites from the early solar system to understand how Earth-like planets form and how biocritical ingredients  — C, H, N, O-containing molecules — are delivered to these worlds.
The Arizona State University team will take a similar approach. Led by Steven Desch, this research group will place planetary habitability in a chemical context, with the goal of producing a “periodic table of planets”. Additionally, the outputs from this team will be critical inputs to other teams modeling the atmospheres of other worlds.
Researchers from Hampton University will be exploring the sources and sinks for volatiles on habitable worlds. The “Living, Breathing Planet Team," led by William B. Moore, will study how the loss of hydrogen and other atmospheric compounds to space has profoundly changed the chemistry and surface conditions of planets in the solar system and beyond. This research will help determine the past and present habitability of Mars and even Venus, and will form the basis for identifying habitable and eventually living planets around other stars.
The team centered at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies will investigate habitability on a more local scale. Led by Tony Del Genio, it will examine the habitability of solar system rocky planets through time, and will use that foundation to inform the detection and characterization of habitable exoplanets in the future.
The NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory, based at the University of Washington, was founded in 2001 and is a heritage team of the NExSS network. This research group, led by Dr. Victoria Meadows, will combine expertise from Earth observations, Earth system science, planetary science, and astronomy to explore factors likely to affect the habitability of exoplanets, as well as the remote detectability of global signs of habitability and life.
Five additional teams were chosen from the Planetary Science Division portion of the Exoplanets Research Program (ExRP).  Each brings a unique combination of expertise to understand the fundamental origins of exoplanetary systems, through laboratory, observational, and modeling studies.
A group led by Neal Turner at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, will work to understand why so many exoplanets orbit close to their stars. Were they born where we find them, or did they form farther out and spiral inward? The team will investigate how the gas and dust close to young stars interact with planets, using computer modeling to go beyond what can be imaged with today's telescopes on the ground and in space. 
A team at the University of Wyoming, headed by Hannah Jang-Condell, will explore the evolution of planet formation, modeling disks around young stars that are in the process of forming their planets. Of particular interest are “transitional” disks, which are protostellar disks that appear to have inner holes or regions partially cleared of gas and dust. These inner holes may be caused in part by planets inside or near the holes.
A Penn State University team, led by Eric Ford, will strive to further understand planetary formation by investigating the bulk properties of small transiting planets and implications for their formation.  
A second Penn State group, with Jason Wright as principal investigator, will study the atmospheres of giant planets that are transiting hot Jupiters with a novel, high-precision technique called diffuser-assisted photometry. This research aims to enable more detailed characterization of the temperatures, pressures, composition, and variability of exoplanet atmospheres.
The University of Maryland and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center team, with Wade Henning at the helm, will study tidal dynamics and orbital evolution of terrestrial class exoplanets. This effort will explore how intense tidal heating, such as the temporary creation of magma oceans, can actually save Earth-sized planets from being ejected during the orbital chaos of early solar systems.
Another University of Maryland project, led by Drake Deming, will leverage a statistical analysis of Kepler data to extract the maximum amount of information concerning the atmospheres of Kepler's planets.
The group led by Hiroshi Imanaka from the SETI Institute will be conducting laboratory investigation of plausible photochemical haze particles in hot, exoplanetary atmospheres.  
The Yale University team, headed by Debra Fischer, will design new spectrometers with the stability to reach Earth-detecting precision for nearby stars. The team will also make improvements to Planet Hunters, www.planethunters.org, a web interface that allows citizen scientists to search for transiting planets in the NASA Kepler public archive data. Citizen scientists have found more than 100 planets not previously detected; many of these planets are in the habitable zones of host stars.
A group led by Adam Jensen at the University of Nebraska-Kearney will explore the existence and evolution of exospheres around exoplanets, the outer, ‘unbound’ portion of a planet's atmosphere. This team previously made the first visible light detection of hydrogen absorption from an exoplanet's exosphere, indicating a source of hot, excited hydrogen around the planet. The existence of such hydrogen can potentially tell us about the long-term evolution of a planet's atmosphere, including the effects and interactions of stellar winds and planetary magnetic fields. 
From the University of California, Santa Cruz, Jonathan Fortney’s team will investigate how novel statistical methods can be used to extract information from light which is emitted and reflected by planetary atmospheres, in order to understand their atmospheric temperatures and the abundance of molecules.
Last Updated: April 26, 2015
Editor: Sarah Loff
 NASA
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
ayabaca@gmail.com
ayabaca@hotmail.com
ayabaca@yahoo.com
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NASA : NASA Wraps Up First Green Aviation Tests on Boeing ecoDemonstrator .- NASA, concluye la primera prueba de su avión verde Boeing EcoDemonstrator

Hola amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG., hemos recibido una importante información de la Agencia Espacial NASA, sobre la conclusión de la primera prueba de su avión llamado:  Boeing's ecoDemonstrator 757 airplane.
NASA, dice : "La primera de estas pruebas, el control de flujo del Experimento Tail vuelo vertical mejorada activo, evaluó el efecto de los dispositivos diminutos llamados actuadores chorro de barrido. Treinta y uno de estos dispositivos fueron instalados en vertical de cola de la aeronave, que proporciona estabilidad y control durante el despegue y el aterrizaje, y probado para determinar que - en su caso - efecto que tuvieron sobre la aerodinámica de las superficies de la cola y el timón....
NASA, añade: " "Si somos capaces de controlar el flujo de aire sobre la cola vertical en la demanda, creemos que podemos proporcionar suficiente fuerza lateral durante el despegue y el aterrizaje de que los fabricantes de aeronaves podemos hacer de manera segura la cola más pequeña", dijo Mike Alexander, ingeniero jefe de sistemas para el pruebas de vuelo en el Centro de Investigación Langley de la NASA en Hampton, Virginia. "La capacidad de reducir el tamaño de la cola vertical sería reducir el peso y arrastrar y disminuir el consumo de combustible y las emisiones."

Tail of Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator
NASA's recent green aviation tests included the Active Flow Control Enhanced Vertical Tail Flight Experiment, for which 31 tiny devices called sweeping jet actuators were installed on the tail of a Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator aircraft to determine what -- if any -- impact the devices had on the aerodynamics of the tail.
Credits: NASA/Boeing
 
NASA researchers have wrapped up a series of flight experiments with Boeing's ecoDemonstrator 757 airplane, testing technologies designed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.

The first of these tests, the Active Flow Control Enhanced Vertical Tail Flight Experiment, assessed the effect of tiny devices called sweeping jet actuators. Thirty one of these devices were installed on the aircraft’s vertical tail, which provides stability and directional control during takeoff and landing, and tested to determine what – if any – effect they had on the aerodynamics of the tail and rudder surfaces.

"If we can control the flow of air over the vertical tail on demand, we believe we can provide enough side force during take-off and landing that aircraft manufacturers can safely make the tail smaller," said Mike Alexander, lead systems engineer for the flight tests at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. "The ability to reduce the size of the vertical tail would reduce weight and drag and decrease fuel consumption and emissions."

To validate this theory, the ecoDemonstrator made six roundtrip flights April 9-15 between Boeing Field in Seattle and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, a body of water just north of the Puget Sound that marks the international boundary between the United States and Canada. The active flow control technology was tested in a variety of configurations and flight conditions, including simulated engine failures.

"Initial flight test results seem to validate the wind tunnel testing we did with a Boeing 757 tail that was outfitted with this same active flow control system. But we still have a lot more analysis to do," said John Lin, active flow control experiment principal investigator at Langley.

Wind tunnel tests were performed late in 2013 at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. Results from these tests suggested future aircraft designers may be able to scale down the size of the vertical tail by about 17 percent and reduce fuel usage by as much as 0.5 percent, which quickly adds up to big savings.

With this experiment finished, the next stop for the ecoDemonstrator 757 is Shreveport, Louisiana, where another set of NASA researchers will test wing coatings designed to minimize insect residue.

Tests will be performed on five samples of different coatings applied to the leading edge slats of the airplane's wings to see whether the coatings prevent bug residue from collecting on the wings during flight. Repelling insect residue could help smooth airflow over the wings -- another effective means of reducing fuel consumption.
Between April 27 and May 15, the aircraft will complete 15 days of flying around the Shreveport area, selected because of logistical and climate considerations, and its plentiful supply of quality bugs.

"The ecoDemonstrator aircraft is an excellent research platform and we’re excited to be able to partner with Boeing in making more efficient, safe, and greener aircraft," said Fay Collier, NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project manager.

The active flow control and wing coating experiments on board the ecoDemonstrator 757 are part of several ERA technology demonstrations designed to further the goals of reducing aircraft fuel consumption, noise and emissions.

With the exception of Boeing proprietary technology, NASA knowledge gained through the ecoDemonstrator research will be publicly available to benefit industry.

For more information about NASA’s aeronautics research, visit:


-end-
J.D. Harrington
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-5241
j.d.harrington@nasa.gov

Kathy Barnstorff
Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.
757-864-9886 / 757-344-8511
kathy.barnstorff@nasa.gov
Last Updated: April 26, 2015
Editor: Karen Northon
NASA
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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