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domingo, 20 de septiembre de 2015

NSF : To slow the spread of infectious diseases, NSF, NIH, USDA support new research .- Para frenar la propagación de enfermedades infecciosas, NSF, NIH, USDA apoyar nuevas investigaciones

Hola mis amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG., hemos recibido información de la Fundación Nacional de Ciencias de Los Estados Unidos (NSF), sobre la unión que harán las principales instituciones norteamericanas para unir esfuerzos y luchar contra la propagación de enfermedades infecciones que se transmiten entre los humanos y los animales en el medio ambiente.
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Scientists will study how diseases are transmitted among humans, other animals and the environment.
Los científicos estudiarán cómo se transmiten las enfermedades entre los humanos, otros animales y el medio ambiente.

mosquito on skin
EEID scientists will study the effects of temperature on vector-borne disease transmission.
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August 26, 2015
Emerging pandemic disease outbreaks such as Ebola increasingly threaten global public health and world economies, scientists say. We can expect five such new diseases to emerge each year--and spread. The tropical disease dengue fever, for example, has made its way to Florida and Texas, seemingly to stay.
Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in incidence of these diseases? A joint program of the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is seeking answers.
The Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) program supports efforts to understand the underlying ecological and biological mechanisms behind human-induced environmental changes and the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases.
A complex process
The EEID program is also co-funded by the U.K.'s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).
This year, the program has awarded eight new grants totaling $18 million.
Disease transmission is a complex process that involves disease organisms, disease vectors, disease hosts and the predators that consume those hosts. It links relatively pristine areas with human habitations and human-dominated areas.
Projects supported through the EEID program allow scientists to study how large-scale environmental events--such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution--alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and other animals.
Researchers supported through the EEID program are advancing basic theory related to infectious diseases, and applying that knowledge to improve our understanding of how pathogens spread through populations at a time of increasing global change.
EEID research benefits
The benefits of research on the ecology of infectious diseases include development of theories of how diseases are transmitted; improved understanding of unintended health effects of development projects; increased capacity to forecast disease outbreaks; and knowledge of how infectious diseases emerge and reemerge.
"As demonstrated by the Ebola crisis, infectious diseases are an ongoing threat," says Sam Scheiner of NSF's Directorate for Biological Sciences and EEID program officer at NSF. "The fundamental research from these projects will help prepare us for the next outbreak, wherever it might come from."
Adds Christine Jessup of NIH's Fogarty International Center, "Infectious diseases are an ongoing global health challenge, often with devastating consequences. Environmental change, population mobility, and complex socio-ecological systems underlie many infectious disease threats. Our ability to prevent and control emerging and re-emerging diseases hinges on enhanced understanding of these diseases in their ecological and evolutionary contexts."
New awards to address current and future threats
This year's EEID awardees will conduct research on such topics as: group living as a possible explanation for infectious disease vulnerability in social species; vector behavior in transmission ecology; effects of agricultural expansion and intensification on infections; long-distance dispersal and disease outbreaks; and effects of temperature on vector-borne disease transmission.
"As we learn more about the ecology of pathogens that cause infectious diseases, we see clear links among public health, animal health, plant health, and the environment, with agriculture playing a significant role," says Sonny Ramaswamy, USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture director. "Through our partnership with the Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases program, we are able to support agriculturally-relevant research on topics of global concern, and help ensure the safety and security of our food supply."
Adds Melanie Welham, BBSRC's science director, "Global uncertainties can present new challenges, and scientific research helps us to prepare for our future. The health of our livestock, plants and crops is dependent on improved knowledge of infectious diseases. This new funding will help us respond more rapidly and effectively to emerging threats, and to safeguard health and food security."
2015 NSF-NIH-USDA-BBSRC Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Awards
Kathleen Alexander, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University:
Jason Blackburn, University of Florida:
Sonia Hernandez, University of Georgia:
Leah Johnson, University of South Florida:
Cristina Lanzas, North Carolina State University-Raleigh:
Erin Mordecai, Stanford University:
Christopher Mundt, Oregon State University:
Jason Rohr, University of South Florida:

Media Contacts Cheryl Dybas, NSF, (703) 292-7734, cdybas@nsf.gov

Related WebsitesNSF Special Report: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/ecoinf/
NSF Discovery Article Series: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases: http://nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=134947
NSF News (2014 EEID Awards): Racing ahead of disease outbreaks: $12 million in new research grants: http://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=132570
NSF News (2013 EEID Awards): Outbreak: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease grants support research on disease transmission: http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=129280
NSF News (2012 EEID Awards): Controlling the Spread of Diseases Among Humans, Other Animals and the Environment: http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=125496

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, its budget is $7.3 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 48,000 competitive proposals for funding, and makes about 11,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.
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plague on a flea, seen under a microscope.
The "VectorBiTE" project studies the ecology of small, disease-carrying organisms, like this flea.
Credit and Larger Version
Through a new EEID grant, pathogens in which birds are hosts are under investigation.
Through a new EEID grant, pathogens in which birds are hosts are under investigation.
Credit and Larger Version
striped rust on wheat leaves
One EEID award focuses on long-distance dispersal of plant diseases, like this wheat stripe rust.
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Infectious disease vulnerability in social species is an EEID project topic.
Infectious disease vulnerability in social species is an EEID project topic.
Credit and Larger Version
Cattle in the field
EEID scientists will estimate environmentally-mediated disease transmission among animals.
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The National Science Foundation (NSF)

Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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