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viernes, 13 de noviembre de 2015

NASA : Carbon Dioxide Measurements from OCO-2.- Medidas Dióxido de carbono de OCO-2.-

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite is providing NASA’s first detailed, global measurements of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at the Earth’s surface. OCO-2 recently released its first full year of data — critical to analyzing the annual cycle carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech
El Observatorio de 2 satélites en órbita de carbono está proporcionando primeras mediciones globales de la NASA detallados, de dióxido de carbono en la atmósfera en la superficie de la Tierra. OCO-2 lanzado recientemente su primer año completo de datos - fundamental para el análisis de las concentraciones anuales de dióxido de carbono del ciclo en la atmósfera.

As Earth Warms, NASA Targets ‘Other Half’ of Carbon, Climate Equation

During a noon EST media teleconference today, NASA and university scientists will discuss new insights, tools and agency research into key carbon and climate change questions, as the agency ramps up its efforts to understand how Earth’s ocean, forest, and land ecosystems absorb nearly half of emitted carbon dioxide today.

Carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by human activities influences the amount of the sun’s energy trapped by Earth’s atmosphere. These emissions are the subject of a United Nations climate conference in Paris later this month. To improve the information available to policymakers on this issue, scientists are grappling with the complex question of whether Earth’s oceans, forests and land ecosystems will maintain their capacity to absorb about half of all human-produced carbon dioxide emissions in the future.

“NASA is at the forefront of scientific understanding in this area, bringing together advanced measurement technologies, focused field experiments, and cutting-edge research to reveal how carbon moves around the planet and changes our climate,” said Michael Freilich, director of NASA’s Earth Science Division. “Understanding how the planet responds to human carbon emissions and increasing atmospheric CO2 levels will position our nation to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges that climate changes present.”

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels recently surpassed a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) -- higher than at any time in at least 400,000 years -- and continue to increase at about 2 ppm per year. Levels of the even more potent heat-trapping gas methane -- also carbon-based -- now exceed pre-industrial amounts by about 2.5 times. Calculations show that, on average, only about half of the carbon emitted by human activities remains in the atmosphere.

This “other half” of the carbon problem -- how and where it is absorbed on land and sea -- is a priority for carbon cycle scientists at NASA and around the world. Scientists are investigating how Earth’s warming environment will affect the ability of ecosystems around the world to absorb carbon naturally, and what changes in those ecosystems could mean for future climate. It’s a major research question involving several NASA satellite missions, multi-year field campaigns and new instruments that will fly on the International Space Station in coming years.

Scientists discussed the ongoing analysis of the first year-plus of satellite data from NASA’s recently launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 -- the agency’s first satellite designed to measure carbon dioxide from the top of Earth’s atmosphere to its surface.

“As carbon dioxide is the largest human-produced driver of our changing climate, having regular observations from space is a major step forward for our ability to understand and predict climate change,” said Annmarie Eldering, OCO-2 deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. “Precisely measuring carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been one of the most difficult observations to make from space.”

Animation of carbon dioxide released from two different sources: fires (biomass burning) and massive urban centers known as megacities. The animation covers a five day period in June 2006. The model is based on real emission data and is then set to run so that scientists can observe how the greenhouse gas behaves once it has been emitted.
Credits: Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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