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domingo, 21 de diciembre de 2014

nsf.gov - National Science Foundation - Ebola, Dengue fever, Lyme disease: The growing economic cost of infectious diseases.- Enfermedad de Ebola, la fiebre del dengue, de Lyme: El creciente costo económico de las enfermedades infecciosas

Hola amigos: A VUELO DE UN QUINDE EL BLOG., la Fundación Nacional de Ciencias de Los Estados Unidos de América nos informa, que cada año aparecen cinco (5) nuevas enfermedades de la misma mortandad como el Ébola, e incide que hay que establecer nuevas estrategias para recibirlas y combatirlas..
NSF. nos dice: "...Surgimiento de los brotes de enfermedades pandémicas como el Ébola amenazan cada vez más las economías globales de salud y públicos mundiales, tal como lo dicen los científicos. Podemos esperar cinco nuevos tales enfermedades cada año, en el futuro............Y esperan que se propaguen. La fiebre del dengue enfermedad tropical, por ejemplo, ha hecho su camino a Florida y Texas, al parecer para quedarse....
NSF . añade : ".....Pero la respuesta mundial a las enfermedades infecciosas a menudo es demasiado tarde para evitar efectos importantes sobre la salud y el crecimiento económico, los investigadores creen.....Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el número de personas infectadas con el Ébola ha superado 17.000, con más de 6.000 muertes. El Banco Mundial estima ahora que el costo financiero de dos años de Ébola puede llegar a $ 32.6 mil millones y obligar a algunas economías de África Occidental a gastar ingentes cantidades del escaso dinero; que ya sufren en una recesión profunda............"
Five new such diseases expected each year; strategies to reduce climate change adaptable to infectious diseases
health worker with biohazard gear on
Stopping Ebola in its tracks calls for rapid control measures; long-term, is there a better way?
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December 16, 2014
The following is part 13 in a series on the NSF-NIH-USDA Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease (EEID) Program. See parts: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, and 12.
Emerging pandemic disease outbreaks such as Ebola increasingly threaten global public health and world economies, scientists say. We can expect five new such diseases each year, into the future.
And expect them to spread. The tropical disease dengue fever, for example, has made its way to Florida and Texas, seemingly to stay.
But the global response to infectious diseases is often too late to prevent major effects on health and economic growth, researchers believe.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people infected with Ebola has surpassed 17,000, with more than 6,000 deaths. The World Bank now estimates that the two-year financial cost of Ebola may reach $32.6 billion and force some already suffering West African economies into a deep recession.
Growing economic cost of global disease outbreaks
Scientists at EcoHealth Alliance in New York and other organizations studied the economic cost of such global disease outbreaks.
Economists, disease ecologists and others collaborated on an in-depth economic analysis of strategies to address pandemic threats in a proactive way--rather than a reactive response to a crisis. The results are published in this week's issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
"Our research shows that new approaches to reducing emerging pandemic threats at the source would be more cost-effective than trying to mobilize a global response after a disease has emerged," says Peter Daszak, senior author of the paper and president of EcoHealth Alliance.
The researchers used economic modeling to analyze two strategies for a pandemic response: Current business-as-usual approaches that rely on global surveillance to identify new diseases in people, and new "mitigation" strategies to reduce the underlying drivers of emerging diseases and lower the risk of their emergence.
"Our economic modeling demonstrates that the new approach to dealing with disease emergence is the right strategy in the long-term," says Jamie Pike, an economist at EcoHealth Alliance and first author of the paper.
The results indicate that the strategy for pandemics needs to be coordinated on a global scale to be effective in reducing risk. And that mitigation strategies will be far more cost-effective in the long-term.
The results follow those reported in a September, 2014, paper in the journal EcoHealth, in which Daszak, Charles Perrings of Arizona State University, A. Marm Kilpatrick of the University of California at Santa Cruz, and colleagues show that economic epidemiology has the potential to improve predictions of the course of infectious diseases, and to support new approaches to management of such diseases.
Environmental change causing increase in number of new diseases
Ebola. West Nile virus. Lyme disease. All are infectious diseases spreading in animals, and in humans. Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in incidence of these diseases?
With 60 percent of all human diseases and 75 percent of all emerging infectious diseases involving animal-to-human transmission, the underlying factors that contribute to disease outbreaks are mostly related to environmental changes to global ecosystems, the scientists found. Deforestation and illegal wildlife trade are two culprits.
Large-scale environmental events alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals.
"Virtually all the world's terrestrial and aquatic communities have undergone dramatic changes in biodiversity due primarily to habitat transformations such as deforestation and agricultural intensification, invasions of exotic species, chemical contamination, and climate change events," says Sam Scheiner, National Science Foundation (NSF) program director for the joint NSF-NIH-USDA Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) Program, which funded the research.
Ebola epidemic highlights need to address infectious disease threats
"The current Ebola epidemic highlights the need to anticipate possible health threats from these changes," says Scheiner. "This study shows that the long-term economic benefits outweigh the short-term costs, not to mention the human benefits of preventing the next pandemic."
Rapid changes to the environment are resulting in a continuous year-by-year increase in the number of new diseases emerging, the researchers found.
"With continued pressure causing diseases to rise, we need to analyze the ecological and economic foundations of the risk, and identify economically effective strategies to reduce it," says David Finnoff, an economist at the University of Wyoming and co-author of the PNAS paper.
The paper highlights WHO International Health Regulations goals, and points out that the global capacity to achieve such targets needs to be addressed to deal with the continuous rise in the rate of new diseases.
Five new diseases each year into the future
"We show that we can expect more than five new emerging diseases each year into the future," says Daszak.
"With this continuous rise in the pandemic threat, and our increasing global connectivity, we are at a critical moment in history to act."
Cheryl Dybas, NSF (703) 292-7734
Related Programs Ecology of infectious diseases
Related WebsitesNSF Special Report: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/ecoinf/
NSF EEID Discovery Article Series:
NSF Grant: Risks of Animal and Plant Infectious Diseases through Trade (RAPID Trade): http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1414374&HistoricalAwards=false
NSF News: Racing ahead of disease outbreaks: $12 million in new research grants: http://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=132570
NSF News: Outbreak: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease grants support research on disease transmission:
NSF News: Controlling the Spread of Diseases Among Humans, Other Animals and the Environment:
Scientist Peter Daszak surrounded by roosters and hens at a farm in China.
Scientist Peter Daszak studies infectious disease transmission at a chicken farm in China.
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illustration showing animals, insects, trees and houses.
Our interaction with the environment is likely responsible for increasing infectious diseases.
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Mosquito on skin
Mosquitoes transmit the virus that causes the often-deadly disease dengue fever.
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maps showing north and south americas and counries at risk of dengue fever
Dengue fever is on-the-march across the Western Hemisphere, appearing in new regions.
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close up image of a tick
Where ticks are, Lyme disease may follow. Lyme is now rampant in many northeastern U.S. states.
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The National Science Foundation (NSF)
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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