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domingo, 13 de noviembre de 2016

ESA : La ESA en la COP22 en Marruecos

http://www.esa.int/esl/ESA_in_your_country/Spain/La_ESA_en_la_COP22
http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Space_for_our_climate/Space_agencies_combine_efforts_for_space_hydrology


Marrakech desde el espacio
 
8 noviembre 2016
La conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el cambio climático, o COP22, se inauguró ayer en Marrakech, Marruecos. La ESA se unirá a los actores internacionales para dar cuenta del estado de la investigación espacial sobre el clima y proponer mejoras en la recopilación y distribución de datos climáticos. 
La 22.ª Conferencia de las Partes en la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático acoge a los líderes internacionales, invitándolos a evaluar el progreso en la lucha contra el cambio climático.
Esta cumbre ofrece a los delegados una oportunidad para debatir sobre el Acuerdo de París, cuyo objetivo es mantener el aumento de la temperatura media mundial por debajo de 2 °C. La presidenta saliente, Ségolène Royal, anunció en la mañana del lunes que 100 países habían firmado el acuerdo, que entraría en vigor el 4 de noviembre.
La ESA forma parte de la respuesta coordinada de las agencias espaciales internacionales para ofrecer información clave a fin de mitigar el cambio climático. Los satélites recogen datos sobre una serie de variables climáticas, incluidas las emisiones de gas de efecto invernadero, ofreciendo información imparcial sobre la salud de nuestro planeta.
Durante la inauguración de esta conferencia, que se prolongará durante dos semanas, el comité del Sistema Global de Observaciones (GCOS) apuntó que, aunque los actuales sistemas de observación han permitido avanzar enormemente en nuestra compresión del cambio climático y sus causas humanas, aún queda margen para introducir mejoras a escala regional. 
 

Representantes de la ESA en la COP22
 
Por ello, propone un plan para mejorar las redes y sistemas de observación, así como para garantizar la revisión y monitorización regulares del funcionamiento del Sistema Mundial de Observación del Clima (SMOC/GCOS). El Comité de Satélites de Observación de la Tierra (CEOS) y el Grupo de Coordinación sobre Satélites Meteorológicos (CGMS) —de los que la ESA es miembro— responderán a este plan en nombre de las agencias espaciales.
El plan también tiene el objetivo de garantizar el acceso abierto y el almacenamiento de los datos por tiempo indefinido, así como el suministro de productos de información para dar apoyo a los servicio climáticos.
Unas directrices de observación y unos requisitos para variables climáticas esenciales, que puedan utilizarse globalmente y adaptarse de forma local, son clave para poder adoptar un enfoque internacional coordinado para medir el impacto del cambio climático, por lo que también se incluyeron en el plan de acción del GCOS, junto con el desarrollo de una lista conjunta de indicadores climáticos.
A lo largo de la conferencia, la ESA se reunirá con representantes de otras agencias espaciales para mejorar la cooperación a la hora de recopilar y compartir datos clave.
La ESA también participará en una serie de eventos paralelos, como las sesiones especiales sobre cómo los datos satelitales contribuyen a la iniciativa de Naciones Unidas de Reducción de las Emisiones debidas a la Deforestación y la Degradación Forestal, o REDD+. 
English Versión :

ESA at COP22 climate change Summit


Marrakesh from space
 
7 November 2016
The COP22 climate change summit opened today in Marrakesh, Morocco. ESA is joining international partners to report on the status of space-based climate research and propose improvements to how climate data are collected and distributed.
The 22nd UN Conference of the Parties on Climate Change is hosting international leaders to assess the progress in dealing with climate change.
The meeting provides an opportunity for delegates to discuss the Paris Agreement, which aims to keep global temperature increase below 2°C. The outgoing President, Ségolène Royal, announced this morning that 100 countries have signed the Paris Agreement, which came into force on 4 November.
ESA is part of a coordinated response by international space agencies to provide crucial information for mitigating climate change. Satellites collect data on a number of climate variables including greenhouse gas emissions, delivering unbiased information on the health of our planet.
At the opening of the two-week summit, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) committee noted that, while current observing systems have enabled great advances in understanding climate change and its human causes, there is room for improvement at regional scales.
 

ESA representatives at COP22
It proposes a plan to improve observing networks and systems, as well as ensure the regular review and monitoring of the performance of the global climate observation system. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites and Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites – both of which ESA takes part in – will respond to that plan on behalf of the space agencies.
The plan also aims to guarantee open data access and indefinite data storage, as well as the delivery of information products to support climate services.
Observational guidelines and requirements for essential climate variables that can be used both globally and for local adaptation is key to a coordinated international approach to measuring the impacts of climate change, and was also included in the GCOS plan of action, along with the development of an agreed list of climate indicators.
Over the course of the summit, ESA will meet representatives from other space agencies to improve cooperation in collecting and sharing crucial data.
ESA will also participate in a number of side events, including special sessions on how satellite data are contributing the UN Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, or REDD+, initiative.

Space agencies combine efforts for space hydrology

The water cycle
 
11 November 2016
Heads of space agencies are meeting today in Marrakesh, Morocco at the COP22 climate change summit to reaffirm their commitment to a coordinated approach for monitoring Earth’s climate, with particular focus on the water cycle.
In the meeting hosted by Morocco’s Royal Centre for Remote Sensing and France’s CNES space agency, the heads of space agencies noted climate change is set to alter the water cycle, causing changes in precipitation and evaporation regimes and the acceleration of glacier melting. This will have direct effects on both ecosystems and societies across the globe.
It is therefore imperative to have operational observing methods to quantify current shifts in the water cycle and their effects, as well as develop predictive models to improve forecasting capabilities. The frequent, global coverage provided by satellites is necessary to monitor and quantify the different elements of our planet in general, and specifically for the water cycle.
A number of ESA’s Earth observation missions already provide a wealth of data on this topic. Launched in 2009, the SMOS satellite has been monitoring soil moisture and ocean salinity – two key variables of Earth’s water cycle.  
Meanwhile, CryoSat is measuring the thickness of polar sea ice and monitoring changes in the ice sheets that blanket Greenland and Antarctica, providing vital information on changes in sea level.
Gravity data from the GOCE satellite – which reentered Earth’s atmosphere in 2013 – today act as a reference and are being used to make breakthroughs in our understanding of ocean currents.
 
ESA's water misión

In addition, the Sentinel missions for Europe’s Copernicus programme are providing daily information on ice, water bodies and atmosphere.
ESA’s Climate Change Initiative helps to address issues related to climate through the exploitation of over 30 years of satellite data, and its projects focus on different climate variables such as greenhouse gases, glaciers, sea ice and soil moisture.
ESA also runs a number of projects that focus on water: the TIGER initiative trains African water authorities and researchers in exploiting satellite data and Earth observation technology for sustainable water resource management, while GlobWetland supports the building of wetland inventories, as well as the monitoring and assessment of wetland ecosystems with satellite data.
With the support of international organisations and the user community, the heads of space agencies agreed to continue the supply of space hydrology data, and will propose new missions to improve and complement current measurements in other domains relevant to the environment and specifically on climate change.
They will also support initiatives that strengthen capacity-building to promote the use of these new data in order to improve forecasting and help decision-makers manage water resources more effectively.
The meeting also provided the opportunity for heads of space agencies to follow up a key issue that came out of last year’s COP21 in Paris: the monitoring of carbon dioxide from space. ESA and the European Commission have already begun defining a global carbon dioxide-monitoring system with the support of NASA and Japan’s JAXA space agency.
ESA
Guillermo Gonzalo Sánchez Achutegui
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